Health Tips

The World Health Organization's Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality has set a provisional guideline value of not more than 10 micrograms per litre for lead. According to the test result of the Water Supplies Department, exposure to the level of lead found in drinking water of the affected buildings is unlikely to cause acute toxicity. Every effort should be made to achieve drinking water that is as safe as practicable.

Source: Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health

The standard of safety drinking water can be divided into different level, distilled water is the highest level of drinking water safety standard, purity assurance.

The Standard of Safety Drinking Water


There are various types of water filters which can help to absorb organic contaminants that case odor problem and some of them help to remove cleansing solvents and pesticides. However, some water filters have limitations like incomplete removal of all heavy metals (including lead), inorganic and organic contaminants.

- Alternative source of water without elevated lead, such as distilled water or water from water filters certified by American NSF 53 Standard for removal of lead, could be used for cooking and drinking.

- It will be advisable for infants, young children, pregnant women and lactating women to use alternative sources of drinking water such as distilled water for cooking and drinking as an additional precautionary measure.

- Some domestic water filters (such as those certified by American NSF 53 Standard for removal of lead) can reduce the lead level in water. Nevertheless, no filter will give the claimed performance unless it is operated strictly according to the manufacturer's operational conditions with regular maintenance including timely change of core parts. Without proper maintenance, filters may also become an ideal breeding ground for growth of micro-organisms. As chlorine level in water will be reduced by activated charcoal in the filters, the water from filters should be boiled to kill germs before drinking.

Source: Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health

Legionnaires' disease (LD) is an infectious disease caused by a type of bacteria called Legionella. They are found in various environmental settings and grow well in warm water (20 – 45°C). They can be found in aqueous environments such as water tanks, hot and cold water systems, cooling towers, whirlpool and spas, water fountains and home apparatus that support breathing.

Source: Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health

- If fresh water plumbing system is properly maintained, it is not necessary to install domestic water filters. In case water filters are used, they should be cleaned or changed periodically.

- Drain or purge for at least 1 minute the infrequently used water outlets (e.g. water taps, shower heads, hot water outlets etc.) and stagnant points of the pipework weekly or before use.

Source: Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health

According to Consumer Council's guidelines, there may be easily to cause the existence of germs and bacteria. In order to go green, we recommend placing those used plastic bottles inside recycling bins.

There are 3 main types of drinking water: Tap Water, Distilled Water and Mineral Water.

Tap Water

Hong Kong's raw water comes from rainfall and imported from Dongjiang, which then undergoes a series of treatment process like filtration and sterilization and pumped into distribution systems to supply to the public. Hong Kong's tap water complies with the World Health Organization Guidelines for drinking water quality. However, if the plumbing systems in buildings are not properly maintained, the pipes may corrode which causes discoloration of tap water. Thus, we need to pay attention to tap water quality.

Distilled Water

Source water undergoes a complex distillation process with filtration and softening to remove substances and heavy metal and then water is heated, evaporates and is subsequently condensed into pure water.

Mineral Water

There are two main types of mineral water, natural mineral water and mineral-added water. Natural mineral water is collected from underground mineral springs and its minerals are from surrounding rocks. Thus, taste and minerals content varies from different place. Mineral-added water is made by adding minerals to filtered tap water.

Human body contains about 70% of water and it acts as solvent helps transporting nutrients and detoxifying body wastes. Moreover, water helps us to regulate body temperature through sweating and it moistens our skin and keeps our mind conscious.

The daily water loss for an adult is about 1050 to 3100ml through respiration, evaporation, urinary and fecal loss, which equivalents to 4 to 12 cups of water. Thus, we need to drink an average of 8 cups of water every day to maintain water level. However, it also depends on other factors like weight, physical activity level, temperature and humidity.

When we feel thirsty, this indicates our body starts to dehydrate and we need to intake water immediately to solve it. Otherwise, the dehydrate consequences may be very serious or even fatal. Therefore, keeping a good drinking water habit is important.

Wake up 7-8am(breakfast) 10am 12-1pm(lunch) 3pm 5pm 7pm(dinner)
1 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1.5-2 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1.5-2 cup

Water contains no calories and would not cause obesity. Drink water during meals helps to suppress appetite and drink plain water instead of other drinks with calories would also help to lose weight.

Drinking too much water would not cause edema, since kidney helps regulate fluid level in the body and excess water will be eliminated. However, eating too much salty food would induce accumulation of water in body and drinking more water would help to restore electrolytic balance and cure the edema problem.

Babies' digestive systems are undeveloped and they cannot easily digest minerals. Parents should use distilled water or boiled tap water to prepare infant formula. Moreover, people with kidney problems or cardiovascular diseases are not recommended to consume too much minerals, thus mineral water is not suitable for them as well.

We mainly obtain minerals from diet instead of drinking water. Each litter of mineral water only contains a small amount of minerals. If we only count on mineral water for minerals in take, we need to drink a few thousands liters of mineral water everyday. Thus, it is recommended to have a balanced diet.

The amount and content of water loss varies from different exercise intensity, thus we need to intake the suitable drinks for replenishment.

Low intensity exercise
(e.g. walking and bowling)
Replenish by plain water
Moderate intensity exercise
(e.g. cycling and jogging for 30 minutes)
Replenish by plain water and sport drinks
High intensity exercise
(e.g. endure exercise for over 60 minutes)
Replenish by plain water and sport drinks